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Making a charge for library and information services. Performing measurement in library and information services. Preparing a guide to your library and information service.

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Strategic planning for library and information services. Publications: a.

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Publication: a. Medical Libraries. Division of Scientific and Technical Libraries b. Division of Art Libraries. Law Libraries. Ashworth, Wilfrid. Berk, Robert A. Collins, Judith and Janet Shuter. Griffith, Jose Marie and Donald W.

Hamilton, Feona. Mount, Ellis. Porter, Cathy A.

St Clair, Guy. Scammel, Alison, ed. Webb, Sylvia P. Assessing information needs: Tools and techniques. Copyright for library and information service professionals Paul Pedley. The internet for library and information service professionals. Duncan Mc Kay. Helen Coote. Intranets and push technology Paul Pedley. Managing library automation Robin T. Robinson, Lyn. Seetharama, S. Vespry, Arthur H.

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Weingand, Darlene E. Rama Rao and Abhinandan K. Marketing, as discussed in the previous chapter, is a process that can help managers of libraries and information centres in achieving their objectives of improving access to their clientele, increasing the satisfaction of their clients and reaching financial self-sufficiency. The marketing process, in case of libraries and information centres, implies that these objectives be achieved by offering improved and competitive information products and services.

As already discussed in the previous chapter, the importance of understanding customer requirements has long been felt by the library profession. However, creating and offering information products and services to satisfy customer requirements, has not been very effective. An improvement in the management of this process is likely to yield impressive dividends. Thus, marketing the process of creating, offering, and exchanging products and services which meet organizational objectives, as well as customer requirements has great relevance for libraries and information centres.

This chapter deals with the process of marketing management as well as the underlying key concepts therein. Marketing Management is defined as definition adopted by American Marketing Association in , as reported in Kotler, :. Marketing Management is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of goods, services, and ideas to create exchanges with target groups that satisfy customer and organizational objectives.

This definition has several terms which need to be understood. To begin with, it is essential to understand the two key purposes of the process of marketing. The first purpose relates to achieving organizational objectives and the second purpose relates to achieving customer satisfaction. Both these purposes need to be achieved simultaneously. The second element of the definition relates to preparing and executing a marketing plan. This process consists of 'analysing marketing opportunities, researching and selecting target markets, designing marketing strategies positioning , planning marketing programmes, and organising, implementing and controlling the marketing effort' Kotler Each of the terms of this definition i.

For example, concepts of consumer behaviour and macro environment are crucial to understand the nature and size of the available market opportunity, both in the present and in the future. The size of a specific opportunity over time is hypothesized to follow a pattern called market life cycle. Also, the demand for specific types of products and services, catering to a specific market opportunity follows another similar pattern called product life cycle.

The competition for the identified opportunities is influenced by the stage of market life cycle and the stage of the product life cycle. Competition also influences the design of successful marketing programmes.

Assessing Information Needs (Aslib Know How Guides)

Planning and implementation of marketing programmes for products and services, are significantly influenced by which stage of the market life cycle they are positioned. Thus, the concepts of buyer behaviour, market life cycles, and macro environment are critical for preparing and executing a better marketing plan. A specific product or service offered by a library or information centre would compete with other similar products or services to satisfy the requirements of target customers.

Thus, the concepts of assessing and predicting competition would be useful to arrive at better strategies and plans for the products and services. Planning and executing a marketing plan is not a mechanical exercise, but should be based on a philosophy or an orientation towards the market. Six orientations have been identified in marketing literature which guide marketing efforts. These are production orientation, product orientation, selling orientation, marketing orientation, and societal marketing orientation.

An understanding of these orientations would help to make an appropriate assessment of the market, from the point of view of an organization. However, the marketing orientation seems to be, by far, the most promising one for achieving organizational objectives. Marketing orientation, particularly in the marketing of services, implies three types of marketing programmes.

One is for the external customers, called external marketing, and consists of product, price, promotion, and distribution elements. The second is for the internal clients library staff called internal marketing and which consists of appropriate programmes and mechanisms to prepare the intended organization, including staff, to deliver the marketing programme to the external market. The third is to manage the interface between the service provider staff and the customer—interactive marketing—and is more crucial for the marketing of services.

These must be in conformity with the missions and goals of the parent organization. Goals must also be set from a strategic or long-term point of view, as well as from operational or short-term point of view, for drawing up a relevant direction for the organization. Specific marketing goals must be set up for achieving the purpose of customer satisfaction.

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Similarly, financial goals must be set up for achieving financial self-sufficiency. In addition, specific objectives may, if necessary, include goals related to the development of resources, organization, processes, and technologies.

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