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Be the first to write a review About this product. About this product Product Identifiers Publisher. Conducting polymer-porus, mesoporous based binary composites. Porous, mesoporous and other 3D carbon materials have attracted tremendous attention as supercapacitor electrode materials because of their excellent properties which includes, good conductivity, high surface area, and good electrolyte accessibility.

In addition to these attractive characteristics, high surface area and interconnected architecture, unlike the 1D and 2D carbon materials, allow 3D carbon materials to possess improved conductive networks [63,64]. The 3D carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon cloths, carbon aerogels and other porous carbons, have more active sites for the growth of the conducting polymers. Recently researched, carbon materials electrodes for supercapacitors have shown specific capacitances that are not directly proportional to their surface area, [65,66] and this is due to the fact that not all micropores in the electrodes are necessarily accessible to the electrolyte ions [67,68].

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Therefore, 3D carbon materials with ordered pores would be able to reach a maximum capacitance due to the perfect match between the pore sizes and electrolyte ion sizes. Conducting polymer-metal metal oxides, metal hydroxides, sulfides, phosphides, etc based binary composites. The improvement in the cyclic stability of conducting polymer electrodes has become a serious issue to be focused on.

The lower cost of production and use of a milder electrolyte make them a feasible alternative. Ruthenium oxide RuO 2. RuO2 in both amorphous and crystalline forms is essentially important in both theoretical and practical purposes, because of its unique combination of characteristics, which includes catalytic activities, metallic conductivity, electrochemical reduction-oxidation properties, high chemical and thermal stability and field emitting behaviour.

Graphene-based Composites for Electrochemical Energy Storage

Thus having these properties RuO 2 has been found to be useful as an electrode material in supercapacitors [75]. Among the many metal oxide that are used as electrode materials, RuO 2 has had the most success as a result of its advantages of long cycle life, wide potential window of high specific capacitance, highly reversible reduction-oxidation reaction, and metallic type conductivity. For supercapacitor application Gujar and co-workers produced RuO2 electrochemically using electrodeposition method. However, despite the high specific capacitance of RuO2, some factors has restricted its mass production and widespread application as an electrode material for EDLC, such as its high cost and toxic nature.

Hence, the combination of metal oxides and hydroxides with inexpensive conducting polymers can considerably reduce the cost and also maintain the excellent performance [78—82].

Graphene-based Composites for Electrochemical Energy Storage

Manganese dioxide MnO 2. However, the problem of MnO2 is its relatively low electric conductivity, which will affect its performance as capacitor [87]. But more and more attempts have been brought out to solve this problem. A typical approach is to composite MnO2 with conducting Materials, Hence, forming composites of MnO 2 with conducting polymers as electrode materials for supercapacitors has attracted intense attention.

Xiaodong and co-workers reported a remarkable research on the enhancement of MnO 2 capacitance by composited it with polypyrrole. At the same time, the pyrrole monomers go through the process of oxidative polymerization to produce conductive polypyrrole [88].

The enhancement is attributed to a combination of the improved conductivity effect and the high specific capacitance of PPy [90]. Another promising electrode material for supercapacitor is the nickel oxide NiO and nickel hydroxide Ni OH 2 due to its environmental friendliness, easy synthesis as well as low cost. Using electrochemical strategy nickel hydroxide was transformed into nickel oxide due to some of its unique properties which include reliability, simplicity, accuracy, low cost and versatility.

Zhao et al. Hu et al. The 3D flower-like nanostructure reached a high specific capacitance of The improvements of the capacitive performance is believed to be attributed to the presence of SnO2 nanoparticles embedded within PANI chains, increasing the electrode—electrolyte interfacial area for insertion as well as extraction of ions [93].

CoO, another electrochemically active material, has also been explored for pseudocapacitive energy storage by elaborate incorporation with conducting polymers to tackle the problems associated with capacitance and stability. The assembled asymmetric supercapacitor showed a high specific capacitance of F g-1 and excellent cycling stability due to the shortened ion diffusion channels and the highly conductive nanowire arrays [97].

Most recently, major research efforts are focused on exploring metal sulphides which are greatly abundant in nature and can equally undergo redox transitions with different valence states of metal ions to improve energy density of electrochemical capacitors. Particularly, increasing both capacitance and operating voltage of electrochemical capacitors are of significant importance since energy density is proportional to capacitance and squared voltage [98].

Some nanostructured metal sulfides, such as MoS2, NiCo2S4, CuSx, NiSx, CoSx, have received a great deal of attention due to their excellent redox reversibility and relatively high specific capacitances and have been integrated with conducting polymers as a new type of energy storage materials []. An improved specific capacitance of F g-1 at 0. Lei et al. However, a very high specific capacitance of Fg-1 with an energy density of Recently, ternary nanocomposites which combined three components from CPs, inorganic materials metal, metal oxides, etc. In ternary structural design, several synergistic effects were identified in their application as the electrode material for EDLC [13].

They suggested that the mechanical stability of the composite improved as a result of presence of the conductive CNTs which provide high surface for the deposition of very porous MnO2 nanospheres []. Li-ion batteries are among the most promising, efficient and common high-energy-density systems used in electrochemical energy storage. The Li-ion battery technology formulate a dependable system for electricity storage exhibiting mainly high energy density and design flexibility. Thus the production and world use of Li-ion batteries is expected to keep increasing [].

In recent times, the use of Li-ion batteries in common electronic devices, and also the interest for more effective and safer batteries, has increased tremendously.


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Batteries with great features like superior mechanical properties, higher efficiency, and smaller size are required for handheld electronics to continue with the fast increasing computing power, larger screens and thinner and lighter designs of such devices. Also, there is increasing interest for polymer-based batteries to be integrated with flexible, soft and microelectronics. There has also been a significant increase with concerns regarding the issues associated with such batteries.

The utilisation of flammable organic solvents as electrolyte, development of lithium dendrites, and large volume change as a result of poor structural stability are among the problems associated with Li-ion batteries []. The main theory of Li-ion batteries is shown in Figure In the figure, an arrangement of a negative lithium intercalation material anode by another lithium intercalation material cathode having a more positive redox potential produced a Li-ion transfer cell.

Anode and cathode are disconnected by the electrolyte which is an electronic insulator but also a Li-ion conductor. On charging, Li-ions are released by the cathode and placed at the anode. When the cell is discharged, LI-ions are extracted by the cathode and inserted into the anode []. Figure Schematic illustration of a lithium-ion battery. CPs are promising materials for organic-inorganic hybrid composites for Li-ion batteries due to their excellent characteristics which includes high coulombic efficiency and electrical conductivity, which helps them to be cycled as many times as possible with little or no degradation.

Conductive polymers exhibits several advantages, like good processibility, low cost, convenient molecular modification, and light weight when applied as electrodes. However, poor stability during cycling and low conductivity in reduced state inhibit their further applications in lithium-ion batteries.

In addition, CPs composites with inorganic compounds have received an increasing interest as promising matrices for the confinement of LI-ion batteries. CPs can be used as both anodic and cathodic materials, but are mostly used as cathodes in Li-ion batteries. For instance, PPy-based electrodes has energy densities of approximately 10—50 W h kg-1 and power densities of 5—25 kW kg-1; PANI-based electrodes show energy densities of 50— W h kg-1 and power densities of 5—50 kW kg-1; PTh-based electrodes show energy densities of 20— W h kg-1 and power densities of 5—50 kW kg-1 [, ].

However, the capacity and power density is still relatively low and the stability of organic materials remains a serious problem. Conducting polymer- Na-ion based composites for battery applications. To tackle the increasing demands for green and sustainable energy, Na-ion batteries are being considered as better alternative to current Li-ion technology, due to their material availability, low-cost and environmental friendliness.

Recent researches on Na-ion battery are mostly geared towards the production of inorganic Na intercalation materials. Redox-active polymers has been widely researched and found to be a good choice of electrode-active materials for Na-ion batteries due to their structural diversity and materials sustainability. As a flexible framework, organic polymers can take larger Na ions reversibly without much spatial problems, hence helping to achieve a fast kinetics for Na insertion and extraction reactions.

In principle, a Na-ion battery can be designed through the use of a pair of organic cathode and anode which always have sufficient potential difference and can be coupled well to carry out a battery reaction. Such an all-organic Na-ion battery would be greatly attractive for large scale electric storage applications because of its low cost and eco-friendliness []. Very recently, Wenwen et al. This Na-ion battery showed an output voltage of 1.


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Conducting polymer- Mg-ion based composites for battery applications. Lithium ion batteries has been the subject of much global attention in the continuing development of advanced energy storage technologies. Till recent, these batteries offer the best combination of energy capacity per gram, cost, and long term cycle stability. Nevertheless, Li-ion batteries have several limitations which includes mostly high cost of materials used for the production of the batteries, while capacity is mostly limited by the monovalent nature of the Li-ion. From the theoretical point of view, all the problems associated with Li-ion battery technology are overcome by magnesium batteries.

Magnesium being a divalent ion, allowing for double the theoretical capacity of a Li-ion cell. In addition, magnesium is much more readily available than lithium, thereby reducing the production cost []. These discoveries are possibly transformative since dendrite formation and low columbic efficiency have been long age problem with Li metal battery development [].

Over the past few years, remarkable progress has been recorded in the area of rechargeable Mg battery field, especially with electrolyte design and fabrication. Yuyan et al. Via joint experiment-modeling investigations, a connection between improved solvation of the salt and solvent chain length, chelation and oxygen denticity was established.

Following the same development, the nanocomposite polymer electrolyte is used to enhance the dissociation of the salt Mg BH4 2 and thus increase the electrochemical performance [].