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Perhaps just as logically, within a postmodern America wallowing in talk-show politics and benefits rollbacks, those in the presumed vicinity of the Left have been wary of making counterclaims. Susan Sarandon, Spike Lee, Oliver Stone and Lizzie Borden—to name only a few—speak about their intent as individual artists, as women, as African-Americans and so forth. Once things were profoundly different, of course, at least in certain key regards. Speaking out on political issues and anti-fascism was practically de rigueur, and precisely because the Left had been for a decade the leading anti-fascist force its early warnings and its preliminary mobilizations were richly vindicated.
As the leading Hollywood unionists, moreover, Communists had carried the torch for the underpaid and badly treated backstage worker as well as the actor and writer. If they gained powerful enemies, they also had earned the hard-won loyalties of thousands of non-communist and utterly non-political Hollywoodites.
Apart from fascism and unionism, they continued to crusade on issues such as racial equality that still lay far outside the mainstream political order.
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Email required. Password required. Create an account Forgot your password? Subscribe for instant access to all articles since Kenji Mizoguchi, who died in , ended his career with a series of masterpieces including The Life of Oharu , Ugetsu and Sansho the Bailiff Mizoguchi's films often deal with the tragedies inflicted on women by Japanese society. The Blue Ribbon Awards were established in The number of films produced, and the cinema audience reached a peak in the s.
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A typical program picture was shot in four weeks. The demand for these program pictures in quantity meant the growth of film series such as The Hoodlum Soldier or Akumyo. The huge level of activity of s Japanese cinema also resulted in many classics. Akira Kurosawa directed the classic Yojimbo. Kon Ichikawa captured the watershed Olympics in his three-hour documentary Tokyo Olympiad Seijun Suzuki was fired by Nikkatsu for "making films that don't make any sense and don't make any money" after his surrealist yakuza flick Branded to Kill The s were the peak years of the Japanese New Wave movement, which began in the s and continued through the early s.
Documentary played a crucial role in the New Wave, as directors such as Hani, Kazuo Kuroki , Toshio Matsumoto , and Hiroshi Teshigahara moved from documentary into fiction film, while feature filmmakers like Oshima and Imamura also made documentaries. Shinsuke Ogawa and Noriaki Tsuchimoto became the most important documentarists: "two figures [that] tower over the landscape of Japanese documentary.
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The s saw the cinema audience drop due to the spread of television. Total audience declined from 1. The resulting pink film industry became the stepping stone for many young independent filmmakers. The seventies also saw the start of the " idol eiga ", films starring young "idols" , who would bring in audiences due to their fame and popularity. Toshiya Fujita made the revenge film Lady Snowblood in In the Hochi Film Award was created. Nagisa Oshima directed In the Realm of the Senses , a film detailing a crime of passion involving Sada Abe set in the s.
Controversial for its explicit sexual content, it has never been seen uncensored in Japan. Yoji Yamada introduced the commercially successful Tora-San series , while also directing other films, notably the popular The Yellow Handkerchief , which won the first Japan Academy Prize for Best Film in Dodes'ka-den by Akira Kurosawa and Sandakan No. The s saw the decline of the major Japanese film studios and their associated chains of cinemas, with major studios Toho and Toei barely staying in business, Shochiku supported almost solely by the Otoko wa tsurai films, and Nikkatsu declining even further.
Seijun Suzuki made a comeback beginning with Zigeunerweisen in New directors who appeared in the 80s include actor Juzo Itami , who directed his first film, The Funeral , in , and achieved critical and box office success with Tampopo in Kiyoshi Kurosawa , who would generate international attention beginning in the mids, made his initial debut with pink films and genre horror.
During the s, anime gained in popularity, with new animated movies released every summer and winter, often based upon popular anime television series. Mamoru Oshii released his landmark Angel's Egg in Katsuhiro Otomo followed suit by adapting his own manga Akira into a feature film of the same name in Home video made possible the creation of a direct-to-video film industry. Because of economic recessions, the number of movie theaters in Japan had been steadily decreasing since the s. The s saw the reversal of this trend and the introduction of the Multiplex in Japan.
Kiyoshi Kurosawa gained international recognition following the release of Cure Former documentary filmmaker Hirokazu Koreeda launched an acclaimed feature career with Maborosi and After Life Several new anime directors rose to widespread recognition, bringing with them notions of anime as not only entertainment, but modern art. Mamoru Oshii released the internationally acclaimed philosophical science fiction action film Ghost in the Shell in Satoshi Kon directed the award-winning psychological thriller Perfect Blue. Hideaki Anno also gained considerable recognition with The End of Evangelion in The number of movies being shown in Japan steadily increased, with about films released in Movies based on Japanese television series were especially popular during this period.
Anime films now accounted for 60 percent of Japanese film production. The s and s are considered to be "Japanese Cinema's Second Golden Age", due to the immense popularity of anime, both within Japan and overseas. In , Godzilla: Final Wars , directed by Ryuhei Kitamura , was released to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Godzilla. In , director Seijun Suzuki made his 56th film, Princess Raccoon. Hirokazu Koreeda claimed film festival awards around the world with two of his films Distance and Nobody Knows. Yoji Yamada , director of the Otoko wa Tsurai yo series, made a trilogy of acclaimed revisionist samurai films, 's Twilight Samurai , followed by The Hidden Blade in and Love and Honor in In anime, Hayao Miyazaki directed Spirited Away in , breaking Japanese box office records and winning several awards—including the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature in  —followed by Howl's Moving Castle and Ponyo in and respectively.
In , Mamoru Oshii released the anime movie Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence which received critical praise around the world. His film The Sky Crawlers was met with similarly positive international reception. Satoshi Kon also released three quieter, but nonetheless highly successful films: Millennium Actress , Tokyo Godfathers , and Paprika. Katsuhiro Otomo released Steamboy , his first animated project since the short film compilation Memories , in After several years of directing primarily lower-key live-action films, Hideaki Anno formed his own production studio and revisited his still-popular Evangelion franchise with the Rebuild of Evangelion tetralogy, a new series of films providing an alternate retelling of the original story.
The laws were passed on November 30 and came into effect on December 7. In , at a gathering for the Agency of Cultural Affairs, twelve policies were proposed in a written report to allow public-made films to be promoted and shown at the Film Center of the National Museum of Modern Art. Genres of Japanese film include: [ citation needed ].
Paul Buhle, The Hollywood Left: Aesthetics and Politics, NLR I/, July–August
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Further information: War film. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. April Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan. Retrieved 7 May Retrieved March 24, Screen Australia. Archived from the original on October 27, Retrieved Anime News Network.
British Film Institute. December 4, BBC Culture. Retrieved 1 November Gendai Shokan.
Who's Who of Victorian Cinema. Retrieved 14 December Media Art Plaza. Archived from the original on 28 May Retrieved 29 December McDonald Reading a Japanese Film: Cinema in Context. University of Hawaii Press. Archived from the original on May 28, Retrieved June 8, Edwin Mellen Press. Matsuda Film Productions.
New York: Continuum. Bright Lights Film Journal 30 October Archived from the original on The Japanese Period Film. In Miyao, Daisuke ed. The Oxford Handbook of Japanese Cinema.